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|Product Name:||Liquid Ammonia||EINECS No.:||231-635-3|
|Explosive Limits:||15%-28%||Flash Point:||Flammable Gas|
|Appearance:||Colourless Gas||Odor:||Strong Pungent Odour|
Flammable Colorless Industrial Gases Anhydrous Liquid Ammonia NH3
Liquid ammonia is the best-known and most widely studied nonaqueous ionising solvent. Its most conspicuous property is its ability to dissolve alkali metals to form highly coloured, electrically conductive solutions containing solvated electrons. Apart from these remarkable solutions, much of the chemistry in liquid ammonia can be classified by analogy with related reactions in aqueous solutions. Comparison of the physical properties of NH3 with those of water shows NH3 has the lower melting point, boiling point, density, viscosity, dielectric constant and electrical conductivity; this is due at least in part to the weaker hydrogen bonding in NH3 and because such bonding cannot form cross-linked networks, since each NH3 molecule has only one lone pair of electrons compared with two for each H2O molecule.
The toxicity of ammonia solutions does not usually cause problems for humans and other mammals, as a specific mechanism exists to prevent its build-up in the bloodstream. Ammonia is converted to carbamoyl phosphate by the enzyme carbamoyl phosphate synthetase, and then enters the urea cycle to be either incorporated into amino acids or excreted in the urine. Fish and amphibians lack this mechanism, as they can usually eliminate ammonia from their bodies by direct excretion. Ammonia even at dilute concentrations is highly toxic to aquatic animals, and for this reason it is classified as dangerous for the environment.
Although ammonia is regulated in the United States as a non-flammable gas, it still meets the definition of a material that is toxic by inhalation and requires a hazardous safety permit when transported in quantities greater than 13,248 L.
Ammonia is miscible with water. In an aqueous solution, it can be expelled by boiling. The aqueous solution of ammonia is basic. The maximum concentration of ammonia in water (a saturated solution) has a density of 0.880 g/cm3 and is often known as '.880 ammonia'. Ammonia does not burn readily or sustain combustion, except under narrow fuel-to-air mixtures of 15–25% air.
1. Physical properties
|Hazardous class for transort||2.3|
2. Typical technical data (COA)
|High Grade||First Class|
|Oil mg/kg ≤||5||1.6|
|Fe mg/kg ≤||1||0.7|
|Cylinder Size||Filling Weight (kg)|
|Fertilizer||Globally, approximately 88% of ammonia is used as fertilizers|
either as its salts, solutions or anhydrously. When applied to soil, it helps provide increased yields of crops such as maize and wheat
|Precursor to nitrogenous compounds||Ammonia is directly or indirectly the precursor to most nitrogen-containing compounds|
|Cleaner||Household ammonia is a solution of NH3 in water used as a general purpose cleaner for many surfaces|
|Fermentation||Solutions of ammonia ranging from 16% to 25% are used in the fermentation industry as a source of nitrogen for microorganisms and to adjust pH during fermentation|
|Antimicrobial agent for food products||Anhydrous ammonia is currently used commercially to reduce or eliminate microbial contamination of beef|
Because of ammonia's vaporization properties, it is a useful refrigerant. It was commonly used prior to the popularisation of chlorofluorocarbons (s). Anhydrous ammonia is widely used in industrial refrigeration applications and hockey rinks because of its high energy
|For remediation of gaseous emissions|
Ammonia is used to scrub SO2 from the burning of fossil fuels, and the resulting product is converted to ammonium sulfate for use as fertilizer.
|As a stimulant||Ammonia, as the vapor released by smelling salts, has found significant use as a respiratory stimulant. Ammonia is commonly used in the illegal manufacture of methamphetamine through a Birch reduction|
|Textile||Liquid ammonia is used for treatment of cotton materials, giving properties like mercerisation, using alkalis. In particular, it is used for prewashing of wool|
|Lifting gas||At standard temperature and pressure, ammonia is less dense than atmosphere, and has approximately 60% of the lifting power of hydrogen or helium. Ammonia has sometimes been used to fill weather balloons as a lifting gas|
|Woodworking||Ammonia has been used to darken quartersawn white oak in Arts & Crafts and Mission-style furniture. Ammonia fumes react with the natural tannins in the wood and cause it to change colours|